Neo-liberalism revolves around two central principles:

(1) that the factors of production get paid what they are worth and

(2) that free markets will not let factors go waste.

The Neo-liberal economics emphasizes on the neoclassical assumption that all economic agents are rational beings who act upon their own rational expectations. They argue that excessive unemployment
is the result of government intervention into an otherwise perfectly selfadjusting system and hence the state should restrain itself from intervening.

Washington Consensus

The PhraseWashington Consensus was originally coined by JohnWilliamson, Senior Fellow at theWashington based Institute for Economic Development. The policy instruments which were the principles of operation of the Washington Consensus and which applied mainly to the third world (mainly
the borrowing countries) was described by John Williamson(1990:18) as including:

1. Fiscal Discipline: Large and sustained fiscal deficits by central and provincial governments are a main source of macroeconomic dislocation in the forms of inflation, balance of payments deficits and capital flight. These deficits result from lack of political courage in matching public expenditures to the resources available.

2. Reducing public expenditures: When the government expenditures have to be reduced, the view is that spending on defense, public administration and subsidies, particularly for state enterprises, should be cut rather than primary education, primary healthcare and public infrastructure investment.

3. Tax Reform: The tax base should be broadened, tax administration improved, and marginal tax rates should be cut to improve incentives. 

4. Interest Rates: Financial deregulation should make interest rates market determined rather than state-determined, and real interest rates should be positive to discourage capital flight and increase savings.

5. Competitive Exchange Rates: Exchange rates should be sufficiently competitive to nurture rapid growth in nontraditional exports but should not be inflationary-the conviction behind this is that the economies should be outward oriented.

6. Trade liberalization: Quantitative restrictions on imports should be eliminated, followed by tariff reductions, until levels of 10-20% are reached – the free trade ideal, however, can be temporarily contradicted by the need for protecting infant industries.

7. Encouraging Foreign Direct Investment: Foreign investment brings needed capital, skills and knowhow. Barriers impeding the entry of foreign firms should be abolished. Foreign and domestic companies should be allowed to compete on equal terms.

8. Privatization: State enterprises should be privatized. Private industry is more efficient.

9. Deregulation: All enterprises should be subject to the discipline of competition- this means deregulating economic activity in the sense of reducing state controls over private enterprise.

10. Securing Property Rights: Making secure and well defined property rights available to all at reasonable cost.

The Washington Consensus aimed at removing government intervention and promotion of market competition such that the individuals had the choice to invest their productive resources to various alternatives. It aimed at removal of restrictions in the movement of commodity and capital in and out of a
country, making exports cheaper  and free conversion of currencies into dollars. This model of development which promoted unrestricted globalization was first implemented in Latin American Countries in 1970s followed by Africa and Asia and was spread to almost all the developing countries by mid 1990s. Neo-liberalism was also the development model followed to reshape the Eastern European Regions in the Post Communist Period since 1990.

Saroj Meher

Hello Friends, welcome to my website BrainyNote.  My name is Saroj Meher, You can call me a Professional Artist, Painter or an Indian Contemporary Artist, a Teacher, Computer Professional and also a You-tuber, who is eager to learn, find new techniques in his fields of works & grow in his life until his name become a BRAND.

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